Poster

21 11 2012

Poster(assignment)

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21 11 2012

visiting card (assignment)





Seminar [18-09-2012]

18 09 2012

The PDF format of the slides of the presentation on Chesta weekly at the seminar held as the assignment of MEDS111 is given below.  Please click the link below to download the slides.

chesta





आमा तिमीलाई जन्मदिनको शुभकामना

10 08 2012

मैले जीन्दगीको नौ महिना एउटै ठाउँमा बसेर बिताएँ । त्यो न्यानो ठाउँ थियो । मलाई त ती दिनहरुका बारेमा कुनै ज्ञान छैन । तर तिमीलाई मेरो एक-एक हलचल याद छ होला । जीवनमा मलाई तिमीले जति ख्याल र तिमीले जति माया अरु कसैले गरेन र गर्ने पनि छैन । तिम्रो ममताको सागारमा पौडि खेल्दा खेल्दै आज ह्वेल माछा जत्तीकै ढाडे भैसकेको छु । कैयौँ पटक तिम्रो चित्त दुखाएको छु । तर तिम्रो चित्त कहिल्यै दुखेन । मेरा पाहाडजत्रा गल्तिहरुलाई पनि तिमीले तिल भन्दा सानो बनाइदियौ । ज्वोरोले हनहनिएको मेरो तातो निधारलाई पानिपट्टिले चिस्याइदियौ । तिमीले नै यो संसार चिनायौ, हिडन सिकायौ । हर बिहान र बेलुका खाना खान बस्दा मलाई नै सम्झीयौ । तिमीसँग दुईदिन टाढा हुँदा पनि आँशु खसाल्थ्यौ।
ठाडा ठाडा उकालोहरुमा पनि आफुले स्याँ स्याँ गरेर मलाई बुई बोकेरै चढायौ । खेतका डिलहरुमा हुटिट्याँउका फुलहरु खोजेर उसिनेर मलाइ नै ख्वायौ अनि अम्लेट बनाएर पनि ख्वायौ।
आफू कामेरै भएपनि आफ्नो पछ्यौरी मलाई नै ओढायौ । आज पनि तिमीले मलाई काखमा बोकेर हिँड्ने पछ्यौरीमा गुटुमुटु परेर सुत्ने गर्छु । तिम्रो सुगन्ध अझै पनि त्यहि पछ्यौरीमा टाँसिएको छ ।
तिमी नै मेरी सबैभन्दा मिल्ने साथी हौ । मेरा मनका हरेक कुरा तिमीलाई नै सुनाउन चाहान्छु । मेरो दाँत हल्लिएको कुरा होस् वा खुट्टाको नङ बढेको कुरा होस् तिमीलाई नै ख्याल हुन्थ्यो । जुम्रा परेको निहुले तिम्रो काखमा मस्त निदाउँन पाउँदा क्रिकेटको ब्याटिङ समेत फिक्का लाग्ने गर्दथ्यो ।
दिनभरि धुलोमा गाडिएका मेरा धुले खुट्टाहरु लिएर म सिधै ओछ्यानमा जान खोज्दथेँ, तर तिमीले नुन पानी तताएर ठूलो बाँटा ल्याएर ओछ्यानमै मेरो खुट्टा धोइदिन्थ्यौ । तिमीले सिकाएको यहि बानीले गर्दा आज पनि म पानीले खुट्टा नधोइ निदाउनै सक्दिन ।
सुनसान रातमा चकमक बत्ती झिल्क्याउँदै उड्ने जुनकिरीको पछि लागेर हिँड्दा खुट्टा लरखर्याउन खोज्थेँ तर त्यतिनै बेला तिमीले मलाई लड्न नदिइ हिँडन सिकाउँथ्यौ । आज पनि तिनै जुनकिरीहरुलाई खोज्छु तर यो सहरको झिलिमिलीले जुनकिरीको प्रकासलाई बिलीन पारिदिएको छ । तिमी देखी टाढा छु त्यैपनि तिमी यी आँखाहरुमा छ्यौ, मनमा छ्यौ, मस्तिस्कमा छ्यौ । बास्तवमा म त तिम्रै शरीरको एक भाग हुँ । तिमीबिना मेरो कुनै अस्तित्व छैन । तिम्रो नामले मात्रै मेरो ओठमा हाँसो र आँखामा चम्काइ आउँदछ ।
आज यो कलम कुनै व्याकरणका नियमहरुमा बाँधिन चाहान्न । शब्दहरुले तिम्रो चित्र कोर्न चाहान्छन् । कानहरुले तिम्रै शब्द सुन्न चाहान्छन् । माथले तिम्रै राता चुराहरुले सजीएको हातको स्पर्श चाहान्छ। म तिमीलाई धेरै प्रेम गर्छु आमा ।





List of Radio Station with Frequency In Nepal.

7 08 2012

List of Radio Station with Frequency In Nepal.
S.N. Station Name Frequency
ABC Samachar Radio 100.6 MHz
Adhyatma Jyoti F.M 104.8 MHz
BBC World Service 103.0 MHz
BF BS 89.8 MHz
Bhaktapur F.M 105.5 MHz
Birat FM 91.2
Capital F.M 92.4 MHz
Citizen F.M 94.0 MHz
Classic F.M 101.2 MHz
CJMC F.M
ECR FM 104.2 MHz
Good News F.M
Gopi Krishna F.M 101.8 MHz
Gorkha F.M 93.0 MHz
HBC F.M 94.0 MHz
Headlines & News F.M 97.2 MHz
Hits F.M 91.2 MHz
Image F.M 97.9 MHz
Image News FM (Nepal) sister station of image channel 103.6 MHz
Jana Sandesh F.M 93.5 MHz
Kantipur FMrep 96.1 MHz
Kantipur FMrep 96.1 MHz
Kanchan janga FM 92.6 MHz
Keeps 98.3 98.3 MHz
Maittri F.M 99.4 MHz
Metro F.M 94.6 MHz
Nepal F.M 91.8 MHz
Newa F.M
Pathibhara FM 93.6 MHz
Radio Audio
Radio Bagmati 103.6 MHz
Radio Bihani 107.4 MHz
Radio City 98.8 MHz
Radio Filmy 101.8 MHz
Radio Janakpur 97.0 MHz
Radio Masti 87.9 MHz
Radio Mirmire 88.2 MHz
Radio Namo Buddha (Broadcasting out of ktm valley) 106.7 MHz
Radio Nepal 100 MHz
Radio Sagarmatha 102.4 MHz
Radio Upatyaka 87.6 MHz
RBC F.M 100.6 MHz
Star F.M 95.2 MHz
Synery FM 91.6
Times F.M 90.6 MHz
TU F.M MHz
Voice of Youth 96.8 MHz





Mass Media and Its Importance.

7 08 2012

“Media” is one of the most useful essence of human life. We speak of mass media, of media revolution and of living in a media society. We are overloaded with all these letters, sounds and films, pixels, headlines, jingles. When we use the term media in this context we speak of print and electronic media, the so called mass media. Media affect our modern life in nearly every way. With a turn of a magazine page or an easy flip of the TV channel there at our disposal is a huge array of potential identity replicas. In contemporary society, identity is continuously unstable; it must be selected, constructed and created with reference to inevitable surrounding media traditions. There are a variety of mediums from which people can pick and access information from such as radio, TV, Internet, or even cell phones. Consequently, the media holds a very powerful capacity to set a social issue for mass audience to assume and talk about. Often, media do not intentionally set the agenda and resolve the pros and cons of that particular matter, so it repeatedly causes terrible consequences towards public as well as establishes ‘moral panics’, which can sometimes direct to mob violence. This writing will argue that identity is a social construction, managed primarily by the contemporary media and created in relation. An individual’s identity is formed by society in which media plays a predominant role. There is a daily interactive relationship between the subject and the object, that is, human agents and the conditions of their subsistence, respectively. Theories of the individual emphasize on differences between people and deem these differences as natural. Individuals are “constituted” as the possessors of positions throughout the effects of social relations. Alternatively, other theories of the topic concentrate on people’s general experiences in society through watching TV, surfing the internet or reading the newspaper. It is these general experiences that are the most significant way of distinguishing who we are. Thus, subject identity is a social construction, not an ordinary one.
When we connect with the media, we act and are acted upon, use and are used by the system. The following text deals with the importance of media to politics and society.
Main work of media is to inform the people. This relates to our form of government: In a democracy the “demos” should know what goes on in the world as it is the one, that decides. A modern democracy cannot work without the media which are an agent between public and state, the Latin word “medius” describes a status in the middle and that is exactly where we can find media: between two entities of communication. You could counter that nor the ancient Greeks for example needed the media in their democracy, and it was a really excellent type of democracy, when we look at its structure. Something like that is unimaginable for modern polity. Since we cannot organize a meeting between 50 million people to inform them orally, we need an instrument, the media. That is the precondition for political participation of the people.
Information as a main task of media sounds easy but in my opinion it is not that simple at all. Information is always a balancing act between objectivity and subjectivity. On the one hand media have to inform about all important happenings and keep the information as neutral as possible. On the other hand media should also be a platform for groups and organizations that are not mainstream. It should control and criticize not only political parties but also society. Concerning this control function it is important to have a variety of media horizontal and vertical, both different types of media such as TV and newspapers and different providers of information. Due to the control function we call media the forth force in a contemporary democracy.
Media have also an economic side. The German TV system consists of public and private stations. In my opinion it is necessary to have both, for both have advantages and disadvantages. Private TV stations can decide freely what they want to present. As they live on advertisement fees and earn the more the higher their ratings are, a market arises. That has the inescapable consequence of a reign of market’s rules: We are talking about the law of supply and demand. To reach good ratings private TV stations broadcast what people want, some problems can result from this point: There is the danger of delivering stereotypes or superficiality and indifference in general, TV becomes a dumping machine, as some people claim. “Infotainment” instead of information, “politainment” instead of policy. Besides there are public TV stations, and the main difference is that they are not really free, their program is created under a certain standard and the directors are from different groups such as political parties or labour unions.
But then they do not have to look on ratings and can really achieve media’s aim of political education. We need both, public TV stations not to become too superficial, and private ones to be aware of a state TV monopoly which might exist in dictatorships for example, a historic example is the Third Reich, where the Nazis’ most important propaganda machine was the “Rundfunk”, controlled by propaganda minister Goebbels in person; a contemporary example could be the situation in Tibet, where both internal and external media have no permission to film and no access at all respectively. Not for nothing one of the basic principles of democracy is freedom of press.
Media have two further important tasks: entertainment and creating topics of conversation. It sounds sarcastic but this is a main reason why people for example watch TV: to be able to have conversations with lots of people, even if they have no other similar hobbies. Furthermore it raises your status if you are informed, to be subscriber. Sociologists warn against a so called knowledge gap. This means that a gap develops between people who are informed and take part in cultural and perhaps intellectual life and people who are not.
Perhaps you could compare this knowledge gap to the often recited poverty gap. Mass media have big influence on our all day life, whether we want it or not. They set trends and spread them, they influence our way of thinking in an enormous way and they have a long arm in political issues.
These characteristics are more positive than negative as long as some conditions are fulfilled: first a wide diversity of media, second no oligopolies/monopolies and of course freedom of press, third fulfillment of media’s main tasks information, political education and control.
“In former times politicians made policy and the media reported on it. Today media makes policy and the politicians put it into execution.” In this manner mass media has many needs and importance too in people’s daily life:
Mass media has become an integral part of our lives and can not be separated from our life. Particularly for the urban people, the need for information is more important than ever. Our values and way of life in the society in this information era are strongly influenced by the mass media like newspapers, TV, radio, video, and the internet. Mass media’s influence on people’s lives is even greater and deeper than many kinds of state indoctrination or priest’s sermons from the pulpit in the church .The full range of unfiltered media is now available to most of us by using a parabola and satellite transmission. We can buy many kinds of videos freely. Access to the internet is easy and inexpensive almost everywhere. We can find many kinds of information using the internet technology..It is worth remembering that there have been three important revolutions in recent history, i.e. agrarian revolution in farming, industry revolution in mass production and information revolution that provides global access.
We are now in the midst of the information revolution. Due to continuing developments in media technology, we are flooded by a huge volume of non-stop information. Most of this information comes to us without a filter or censor. The information can be positive and negative. It is important for all, and particularly teenagers, to be able to look critically at the information and the sources and make positive choices. Having a critical attitude means that we can distinguish between positive and negative information and make choices that will give us information that will benefit us and our society.
Media is the most powerful tool of communication. It helps promoting the right things on right time. It gives a real exposure to the mass audience about what is right or wrong. Even though media is linked with spreading fake news like a fire, but on the safe side, it helps a lot to inform us about the realities as well.





Nepali Media: A Brief History

7 08 2012

Although the institutional history of Nepali press could be traced back to 1851 when Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana installed a printing press (the Giddhe Press), or in 1901 when the state-owned newspaper, the Gorkhapatra, was launched, its practical history begins in the 1950s, after the fall of Ranas, when several pioneering journalists took to publishing newspapers in a transitional democracy.

Thirty years after the royal takeover of 1960 represented a repressive press system. During this time, press enjoyed limited rights and lobbied, to some extent, for a multiparty democracy that could guarantee press freedom.

After the Restoration of democracy in 1990 a drastic change came in the Nepali Media particularly in the private sector. Liberal provision and guarantee of press freedom enshrined in the constitution opened up avenues for the private sector to involve on media sector. The 1990’s democracy yielded by the People’s Movement also established rights and freedom of the press. The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal (1990) formally guaranteed the freedom of press and publication.
The 1990 Constitution of Nepal says-

No news/articles shall be censored, provided that nothing shall prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities; or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or an any act which may be contrary to decent public behavior or morality.

No press shall be closed or seized for printing any news item, article or other reading material.

The registration of newspaper or periodicals shall not be cancelled merely for publishing any news item, article or other reading material (Article 13).

And, according to Article 16 of the Constitution, every citizen shall have the right to demand and receive information on any matter of public importance: provided that nothing in this Article shall compel any person to provide information on any matter about which secrecy is to be maintained by law.

During Maoist Insurgency: and King’s Direct Rule:

Unfortunately, however, journalism and civil liberties were subjected to victim not only to the government machinery, but also to the violent Maoist insurgency forces in the recent years.

During the first State of Emergency (26 Nov 2001-29 Aug 2002), eight journalists were assassinated, six of them by the security forces and two by the rebels. And more than 150 were arrested and tortured in various ways.

Nepali journalism suffered a lot while it waged a massive struggle against the King’s direct rule. The Nepali press suffered worst form of suppression from the state and also did not remain aloof from the threats, obstructions and violence from the insurgents.

The government enforced various restrictive and controversial draconian ordinances that curbed press freedom as the people’s right to information despite the fact that the nation’s constitution guaranteed full press freedom.

Private sector press was subjected to acute censorship and FM radio stations have been totally banned to broadcast news and current affair programs.

Newspapers were asked by the government not to print any material on security operation or Maoist insurgency without scrutinizing the facts from the Army. Most newspapers outside Kathmandu have suffered intimidation or arbitrary suspension at the order of District authorities. Nearly 50 percent of local publications were closed down owing to unfavorable conditions created by the State.

Due to prohibition on news and news-based programs over private radio stations and strict censorship even on TV channels, several media managements either closed or curtailed programs and relieved staff members. As a result, many journalists have become jobless

People were completely deprived from right to information and other civil rights such as right to free movement inside the country and freedom of expression and of opinion.

Following the February 1 Royal takeover and the imposition of State of Emergency for the second time since 2001, journalists repeatedly faced arbitrary arrests, detention and interrogation. Many journalists were re-arrested even after the Court’s order for their release.
After Restoration of Democracy in 2006:

Despite a historic year for Nepali politics, the country’s media faced significant harassment and obstruction; however it contributed enough in bringing the country back to democratic path being a part of the 2006 April Uprising. Ever following the restoration of democracy and signing up of Comprehensive Peace Accord between the Nepali government and CPN (Maoist), a rebel force, Nepali media and media workers did not witness a sigh of relief and respite from the brutal attacks and blatant violation of press freedom perpetrated by the state, CPN (Maoist) including other agitating parties. During the period from April 25, 2006 to April 12, 2008 after the democracy, altogether 676 journalists and media workers (266 in 2064 BS and 410 in 2065) experienced various incidents of press freedom violation. Likewise, three journalists were killed during this period.
The promulgation of Right to Information Act-2064, Working Journalist Act-2064 (Second Amendment) and constitutional guarantee of freedom of press and expression in the Interim Constitution-2064 have been the remarkable achievements yielded in Nepali press.
During the Terai movement launched by Terai-based various agitating parties and groups, Nepali media witnessed another setback as it was manipulated and numerous incidents of attack and atrocity in the series of political confrontation and clash erupted in the Tarai region In short, there is still need for Nepali Media to wage struggle for their professional and physical safety as well as to establish freedom of press and of expression in Nepal.